Phillipe Choné, Laurent Flochel, and Anne Perrot
"Allocating and funding universal service obligations in a competitive market," International Journal of Industrial Organization Volume 20, Issue 9, November 2002, pages 1247-76.

JEL codes: H23, H25, L43, L51, L523
Keywords: universal service obligations, cross-subsidies, regulation

Abstract: We examine, in a network market open to competition, various mechanisms for allocating and funding universal service obligations among agents (rival firms and consumers). The obligations we consider are geographic ubiquity and non discrimination. We analyze, from both the efficiency and equity point of views, the respective advantages of a ''restricted-entry'' system (where the entrant is not allowed to serve high cost consumers) and a ''pay or play'' system. We show that pay or play regulation always dominates restricted-entry regulation under ubiquity constraint alone. This result no longer holds when the regulator imposes also the non discrimination constraint.